Bank Trust Information
The "fideicomiso" is set up through a Mexican bank for a period of up to 50 years and can be renewed for 50 years. To acquire the land the purchaser must obtain a permit from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The buyer can lease, sell or transfer the property to another family member, and if he dies, his property can be passed to an heir. At the end of the 100 years the property can be sold.
In the trust there are three elements: The trust Settlor (Fideicomitente) which may be a physical or legal Mexican person, who is the owner of the property which is to be placed in trust; the Trustee (Fiduciario) which, by law may be only a credit institution and which holds the raw real estate; and the Beneficiaries (Fideicomisarios) the legal or physical foreign persons who are the beneficiaries of the trust who obtain the use and benefit of the property.
The bank (known as the trustee) holds the trust deed (known as the escritura) for the person or persons purchasing the property (known as the beneficiaries). This property is not part of the bank's assets and cannot be subject to any lien or attachment for any bank obligations. The beneficiary has all ownership rights to the property and may sell, lease, mortgage or pass on to their heirs as desired under law. A bank trust is not a lease.
The Mexican government established the trust agreement as a way of protecting foreigners interested in owning property in Mexico. The reasoning was that by making ownership pass through the trust process, there would be an automatic review of the transaction to ensure it was legal and unencumbered. The bank is required to check ownership, insurance and indebtedness of the property, providing further protection to the foreign owner.
Trusts are renewable at any time by filling out a simple application with the bank. It was never the intent that these properties pass back to the government at the end of the trust period. This is a common misconception and fear of most buyers. It may help in understanding the Bank Trust to compare it with the Deed of Trust, a type of financing instrument used in the U.S. People who buy homes, paying the full amount upfront, receive their titles right away. However, this rarely happens. Under a deed of trust the buyer of a house has only "equitable title," or an equity interest, with the right to use but only a restricted right to sell, until the loan is paid off, after which the owner receives the actual fee simple title. Until then it is held by a trustee, usually a bank or title company. In Mexico the Bank Trust is also held by a trustee, but the buyer never receives the actual title. Realistically many homeowners in the U.S. never receive title to their properties either, because they sell or refinance their homes before the 30-year term of their loan is complete.
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